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Gynecological Conditions & Treatments

What Is Premature Menopause and How to Cope with It?

What Is Premature Menopause and How to Cope with It?

What Is Premature Menopause and How to Cope with It?

Menopause is considered as premature when menstruations end before the age of 40. Normally, average women reach their menopause after the age of 51. Various diseases and their treatment as well as genetics may lead to premature menopause.

What Causes a Premature Menopause?

Genetics plays a great role in premature menopause. Women who have had someone in the family with premature menopause, especially if their mothers have had premature menopause, are at a greater risk of being diagnosed with premature menopause.

Chromosomal disorders like Turner’s Syndrome, Lupus and Grave’s Disease may lead to premature menopause.

Autoimmune disorders also lead to premature menopause by attacking the ovaries and interrupting their normal functionality.

Chemotherapy or pelvic radiation therapy for cancer treatment also may lead to premature menopause.

Surgical Procedures That May Lead to Premature Menopause

Hysterectomy alone or accompanied with oophorectomy can also lead to premature menopause. Hysterectomy is the removal of the uterus due to various diseases like uterine cancer, endometriosis, uterine prolapse, pelvic inflammatory disease, complications after childbirth, etc.

Oophorectomy is the surgical removal of one or both ovaries. Oophorectomy is necessary in cases with ovarian cancer, benign tumors of the ovaries, ovarian cysts, twisted ovary, endometriosis, etc. The removal of one ovary usually does not lead to premature menopause. However, the removal of both ovaries leads to premature menopause and cessation of the reproductive activity.

Signs and Symptoms of Premature Menopause

A sudden change of the menstrual flow does not have to mean that menopause is coming. There are many other causes that can change the quantity and duration of the menstrual flow. Once the period is missed, the first thing that comes in everyone’s mind is pregnancy.

Menopause is considered when women have not had menstrual periods for at least 12 months and which first proceeded by a transitional period, known as the perimenopause.

Perimenopause is characterized by:

  • Hot flashes — a hot sensation that flashes across upper body
  • Irregular periods or less frequent menstruation
  • Emotional symptoms – depression, irritability, and sleeplessness
  • Lighter or heavier menstrual periods than before
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Decreased libido
  • Dry skin, etc.

The perimenopause signs and symptoms vary in women. For some, this period is very challenging, while for others it is unnoticed.

Proper Diagnostics Helps Define Premature Menopause

Women who are facing with the signs and symptoms of early menopause should consult their doctor immediately in order to determine if premature menopause is the real cause, or something else is causing them.

The diagnostic process includes a complete physical examination, blood tests and measurement of the levels of the hormones estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). First, pregnancy and thyroid diseases have to be ruled out.

Today many medications are available in order to help women manage the perimenopause signs and symptoms. This includes herbal treatments, but also hormone replacement therapy.

Diagnosed with Premature Menopause – Now What?

The first thing that concerns every women diagnosed with premature menopause is the inability of having children in the future. The procedure of freezing the eggs and surrogacy offer for many women the hope of having biological children in the future, even after they have entered menopause.

Women who have been diagnosed with premature menopause should also be aware of other negative health influences like osteoporosis, cancer, periodontal disease, etc.


The Truth About Uterine Adenomyosis

The Truth About Uterine Adenomyosis

The Truth About Uterine Adenomyosis

Uterine adenomyosis is a gynecological condition of the uterus that occurs when the innermost layer of the uterus or endometrium infiltrates the middle or muscular layer of the uterus. Normally, the walls of your uterus consist of three layers, the endometrium, myometrium, and perimetrium from inside out. While the myometrium is made up of muscles, the endometrium consists of specialized tissue that grows, sheds, and bleeds during the different phases of a woman’s menstrual cycle. Unfortunately, when the endometrium extends into the myometrium, it continues to undergo the same changes related to the menstrual cycle resulting in the symptoms of uterine adenomyosis.

Although, this disorder resembles endometriosis, they are both completely different from each other. Endometriosis involves the implantation of the endometrial tissue outside the uterus or on its outer surface. On the contrary, uterine adenomyosis is the infiltration of the endometrium into the uterine wall alone. However, about 10% women are likely to suffer from both of these diseases at the same time.


What Causes Adenomyosis?

The cause of  uterine adenomyosis isn’t clearly known. However, any trauma to the uterine wall that breaks the barrier between the endometrium and myometrium is likely to increase the risk of this disease. Some of the possible risk factors include C-section, history of uterine surgery, pregnancy, surgical termination of pregnancy, tubal ligation, or middle age. The reason behind an increased incidence of adenomyosis in middle age is a possible elevation in the blood estrogen levels.


Symptoms of Adenomyosis

Uterine adenomyosis may or may not cause any symptoms. However, since the infiltrating endometrial tissue continues to undergo changes related to the menstrual cycle certain symptoms like increased pain or bleeding are quite common. Here’s a list of the symptoms that may occur with this disease.

  • Severe pain that continues to increase during the menstrual period and around ovulation
  • Intense pressure in the uterus and vagina as the extra endometrial tissue tries to shed during the menses
  • A bearing down sensation
  • Heavy and/or prolonged bleeding
  • Blood clots along with menstrual bleeding
  • Pain during sexual intercourse


Treatment of Adenomyosis

Most women with uterine adenomyosis to tend find some relief after menopause. Hence, the treatment also depends on the woman’s age and her proximity to menopause. Those nearing their menopause are likely to receive pain medications to reduce the pain alone, as the rest of the symptoms may disappear after menopause without any medical intervention. Oral contraceptive pills containing both estrogen and progesterone are also helpful in reducing the bleeding and pain associated with uterine adenomyosis. Additionally, progestin-only intrauterine contraceptive devices and birth-control pills may also help with this disorder by stopping the menses completely. All said and done, women with severe pain and bleeding and who are young with a lot of time before they attain menopause may require surgical removal of the uterus or hysterectomy. However, surgery is generally the last step when none of the other treatments seem to work.


Vaginal Bleeding After Sexual Intercourse

Vaginal Bleeding After Sexual Intercourse

Vaginal Bleeding After Sexual Intercourse

Bleeding after sexual intercourse is not common. The blood may originate from the vagina, cervix or uterus. There are many possible causes of vaginal bleeding after sex. However, some of them are more common than others.


Common Causes of Vaginal Bleeding

  • Trauma to the vagina is the most common cause of vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse. Bleeding can be caused due to losing of the virginity, breaking of the hymen, vaginal tears, etc. Any sexually active woman may bleed after rough sex. If trauma is the cause of vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse, there is always the possibility of having vaginal bleeding again during the healing process. Any slightest trauma after the first one will damage the granulation tissue, causing it to bleed again. This will normally delay the healing process.
  • Vaginitis (infection of the vagina) is the second most common cause of bleeding after sexual intercourse. Vaginitis can be caused by many sexually transmitted infections or not. Chlamydia, Candida or Trichomonas are the most common microorganisms that cause vaginal infections. These microorganisms affect the superficial tissue layer of the vagina, which becomes fragile and even a small friction may cause vaginal bleeding.
  • Cervicitis (infection of the cervix) together with vaginitis, are the second most common cause of bleeding after sexual intercourse. Cervicitis and vaginitis are mostly present together and they can be caused from sexually transmitted infections or not. Depending from its cause, treatment with antibiotics or antifungals is necessary.
  • Cervical ectropion – a condition when the inner lining of the cervix protrudes into the vagina through the cervical opening.
  • Cervical polyps – noncancerous, benign growths on the cervix
  • Cervical cancer – bleeding in middle aged women requires an immediate checkup and assessment. This is necessary in order to rule out cervical cancer as vaginal bleeding is the first most common sign of this disease. The risk of getting cervical cancer increases after the age of 35. If detected in early stages this type of cancer is curable, This is the reason that every uncommon vaginal bleeding, and especially vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse in middle aged women should be taken serious and should be evaluated. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are the main treatment modalities.
  • Vascular abnormalities – are a rare cause of vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse. However, the bleeding may be severe in these cases.
  • Hematological causes – like hemophilia lead to clotting problems. Poor clotting causes excessive bleeding.
  • Incidental causes – there is always a possibility of having menstrual bleeding instead of a pathological bleeding after sexual intercourse. In these cases it is very easy to identify the menstrual bleeding by its consistency and texture.
  • Inadequate lubrication or foreplay, etc.


Other Symptoms While Bleeding After Sex

In cases when you have vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse, it is recommended to consult your gynecologist and make a total check- up in order to determine its cause. Please contact your doctor immediately in cases when except vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse you are also having:

  • Severe abdominal or pelvic pain
  • Excessive bleeding
  • Vaginal discharge that is smelly and not in its normal color
  • Vaginal bleeding if you are middle – aged


Vaginal Bleeding While Pregnant

While being pregnant, every vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse should be considered seriously and an immediate checkup is necessary. Having a placenta previa or a low – lying placenta may lead to vaginal bleeding during sexual intercourse.


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This website contains general information about medical conditions and treatments. The information is not medical advice.

If you have any specific questions about any medical matter you should consult your doctor or other professional healthcare provider.